A lot of white powder is needed to feed the addiction of the four million European cocaine users in 2022. To meet the ever-increasing demand, the extended value chain has adapted. Year after year, South American cartels, allied with European and African mafias, have turned the western part of the continent into a hub for trafficking to Europe.
What techniques are traffickers using? Which are the main transit countries? Who, from the South American cartels, the Nigerian ‘cults’ and thejihadist groups, is helping traffic this substance?
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