“Illicit annual exports from extractive industries in Africa account for at least $31bn to $98bn… As this dirty money lines the pockets of malevolent actors, from armed groups, disruptive structures to terrorist organisations and even rogue states, illicit flows can evolve into global threats to peace and security,” according to the report.
Building on the Munich security conference’s observations, the report identifies political interference, conflicts, and lax border controls as enablers of illicit trade.
Ghana, like many of its neighbours, has a small-scale mining sector that is governed by lax regulations and law enforcement struggling to keep up with the complex operations.
In this environment, undocumented people can own stakes in local mines or operate illegal gold purchasing and smuggling rings without being officially identified.
With the backing of strong political or security
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