On the continent, oil majors Total, Shell and Eni have shifted their focus over to natural gas developments, but their renewable energy and carbon offset projects still make up a relatively small slice of their business.
This is part 4 of a 4-part series
On top of natural gas and renewable energy, oil majors have a third lever they can harness to see the energy transition through, with carbon-negative solutions (carbon sinks) providing a way to offset emissions from their operations.
In Africa, their efforts are focused on forestry projects, notably as part of the UN REDD+ programme on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. The initiative draws on a strict methodology and independent certification agencies like US-based Verra, which manages the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) Program.